Tourism is a complex and multidisciplinary field constitutes a diverse amalgam of sectors and each sector is made up of a variety of products and services visitors/tourists choose according to their own taste and budget. Following are the basic components of tourism that can have an impact on overall tourism of a particular destination.
The primary motivation and preconditions of travel are the attractions of all kinds in a destination which are the major reason for providing pleasure to tourists. These attractions are classified as natural, manmade, and cultural which make up the major tourism product. Following are the details.
Natural attractions in a destination are the combination of public utilities including natural beauty, physical features, and the climatic features of the area. These attractions may include scenic places ranging from deep oceans, beaches, lakes, rivers, creeks to the mountains, landscapes, national parks, wildlife, flora & fauna, and diverse seasons.
Any destination abundant in natural beauty can also fall prey to threats and challenges of managing and preserving the resources. There are many instances of destinations lost their prominence because of the impact of tourists.
Manmade attractions include the built environment by the human. E.g. historical buildings, religious monuments, leisure parks, Disney lands, museums, aquariums, zoos, and orphanages etc. Tourism can be sustained to manmade attractions if the attractions are well preserved with respect to time.
These attractions usually hold aesthetic beauty in a society including the way of life of the indigenous community in a typical natural setting which obviously has spared itself from modernization, national events and festivals, customs, dress, art, handicraft, rituals, folklore, languages and local cuisines. In a developed city cultural attraction include discotheques, live or recorded music, clubs, social events, trade fairs, exhibitions, sports competitions etc.
Due to urban sprawl and modernization, indigenous communities gradually switching and adapting to modern life which results in a gradual fading of cultural beauty.
Accessibility is a major tourism product/service and a key factor in the development of tourism. It comprises means (ports, airports, roads, highways, trails etc.) and mode (aerial, surface, and water) of transportation infrastructure which helps tourists reach their desired destinations and attractions. Accessibility determines the tourists’ experience based on qualities including reliability, affordability, convenience, comfort, and variety. Tourism developments are dependent on the ease of access and types of transportation available. Destinations with sound accessibility features attract a lot of tourists and have longer tourist seasons which help stakeholders earn healthy livings. Three major types of transportation are:
This type of transportation includes all types of airways (commercial plans, jets, helicopters, etc.) to travel long distances. This type of means of transportation helps people travel quickly and are a source of time saving and development.
It is a type of transportation through roadways or railways and is considered the cheapest means of transportation. Trains, buses, cars, carts, and all types of animal transportation feature surface transportation.
It is a 19th-century revolution and made an important contribution to travel after the innovation of shipping technology. Ships, ferry’s, yachts, boats, etc. make up this type of transportation.
Accommodation is a service sector and is subdivided into further categories as shown below:
It refers to the important services provided by the various bodies as mentioned below.
From 5-star resorts to guest houses and from cruise ships to camping, there are various forms lodging comprises and these are categorized as star hotels, apartments, lodges, inns, villas, resorts, huts, tree houses, guest houses, RVs, camping villages etc.
Food & Beverage:
Food & Beverage is a vital component of the overall tourism industry. The sector includes high-end restaurants, conventional restaurants, fast food operators, functional catering, and vending outlets etc.
The attitude and overall behaviour of residents of a destination are significant determinants of tourism. Moreover, the way of treating tourists and their general safety in a destination make or mar the flow of tourism to a great extent. The amicable interaction between tourists and residents leaves a good impression on the fate of the destination.
Supplementary Accommodation or Self-Catering Accommodation refers to the premises which offer only accommodation but not the services of a typical hotel that provides food & accommodation in return of cash per day. Examples of such type of accommodation are Youth Hostels and Tourist holiday villages etc.
There are two types of amenities:
These include seashores, sea bath, fishing, rock climbing, trekking, sightseeing, river, sunrise etc.
These amenities are human designed and include Dance, Music, Drama, Cinema, Swimming Pool, Fair & Festivals, and Internet etc.